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Hyper Smash

Tuesday, May 8, 2007

Benign Or Metastatic Tumor Removal &The importance of IntraOperative Neuromonitoring

Resection of a benign brachial plexus nerve sheath tumor using intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring.

Kwok K, Davis B, Kliot M.
Department of Neurosurgery,
University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California 95825, USA. keithkwok2004@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVE: Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising from the brachial plexus are rare. Neurosurgeons often lack the clinical and surgical experience to optimize the management of these uncommon tumors. We filmed a video depicting the surgical resection of a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor involving the brachial plexus. METHODS: An illustrative case was used to demonstrate the proper management of a brachial plexus nerve sheath tumor including the important role of intraoperative electrophysiological neuromonitoring during tumor resection. RESULTS: Using an illustrative case, we describe a systematic approach in the evaluation and surgical management of patients with a brachial plexus nerve sheath tumor. The importance of taking a thorough clinical history, performing a thorough physical examination, applying high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging techniques to visualize the pathology, and using intraoperative electrophysiological neuromonitoring during surgical exposure and resection of the tumor are stressed. Combined with appropriate postoperative treatment, these techniques minimize the risks and increase the likelihood of achieving a good clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: Brachial plexus nerve sheath tumors are challenging mass lesions that should be evaluated and surgically resected by an experienced team of physicians to optimize clinical outcome.

Neuromonitoring during surgery for metastatic tumors to the spine: intraoperative interpretation and management strategies.
Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Lyon R, Ames CP, Parsa AT.

Department of Neurological Surgery,
Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California-San Francisco,
505 Parnassus Avenue, M-779, San Francisco, CA 94143-0112, USA.

Resection of metastatic tumors of the spine poses great technical challenges, with the potential of creating severe neurologic deficits. Several modalities of electrophysiologic monitoring, including SSEPs and MEPs, have evolved to aid in resection of these tumors. This review has presented additional techniques-such as mapping of the dorsal columns with antidromic-elicited SSEPs to plan the myelotomy and direct intra-medullary stimulation-that help to identify the extent of the tumor margin at its interface with functional tracts. Neuromonitoring can potentially minimize the sensory and motor damage that can occur during resection of metastatic tumors of the spine. Further experience with these techniques should allow improved results follow-ing surgical procedures in functionally eloquent are as of the spinal cord during the surgical management of metastatic tumors

Sunday, May 6, 2007

Regeneration: Sensory vs Motor nerves?

Comparison of the fastest regenerating motor and sensory myelinated axons in the same peripheral nerve
Mihai Moldovan1, Jesper Sørensen1,2 and Christian Krarup1,

Brain 2006 129(9):2471-2483; doi:10.1093/brain/awl184

Functional outcome after peripheral nerve regeneration is often poor, particularly involving nerve injuries far from their targets. Comparison of sensory and motor axon regeneration before target reinnervation is not possible in the clinical setting, and previous experimental studies addressing the question of differences in growth rates of different nerve fibre populations led to conflicting results. We developed an animal model to compare growth and maturation of the fastest growing sensory and motor fibres within the same mixed nerve after Wallerian degeneration. Regeneration of cat tibial nerve after crush (n = 13) and section (n = 7) was monitored for up to 140 days, using implanted cuff electrodes placed around the sciatic and tibial nerves and wire electrodes at plantar muscles. To distinguish between sensory and motor fibres, recordings were carried out from L6–S2 spinal roots using cuff electrodes. The timing of laminectomy was based on the presence of regenerating fibres along the nerve within the tibial cuff. Stimulation of unlesioned tibial nerves (n = 6) evoked the largest motor response in S1 ventral root and the largest sensory response in L7 dorsal root. Growth rates were compared by mapping the regenerating nerve fibres within the tibial nerve cuff to all ventral or dorsal roots and, regardless of the lesion type, the fastest growth was similar in sensory and motor fibres.